In this craft beer age now upon us, it seems that a new style is invented or coined by the week. Some are easy to grasp, and some have such general names, we wonder what it is that makes them unique. Amber ale is one of those categories which most people have trouble defining. Ask someone what an amber ale is and you’re likely to get an answer as meaningless as “An ale the color of amber.”
Almost as meaningless is the generality by which beers are tossed into the amber ale category. Most of the time, amber ale functions as a catch all for beers that aren’t quite dark enough to be called dark ales but range in color from amber to deep red hues. Amber ales’ focus is more on the malts. The hops can be so low as to barely be tasted or so high to have the ale skirt IPA territory. The hop flavor is usually achieved by dry hopping or from late kettle additions of predominantly American hop varieties. What keeps the amber ale separate and distinct is the toasted malt flavor and a light fruitiness which the bulk of IPA’s lack.
Like the newly founded blonde ales, ambers are derived from the American Pale Ale style and were introduced to the market by experimental craft brewers on the West Coast of the USA. The style, then unique because of its caramel-like sweetness, took off in popularity and quickly spread to other parts of the country and now the world.
When did ambers first show up? It’s hard to say who was there first. It comes down more to who was first recognized. Mendocino Brewing Company of Mendocino County, California was founded in 1983 and its flagship beer was Red Tail Ale, a beer representative of the amber style. Full Sail Brewing claims that their malty sweet and spicy floral Full Sail Amber was the first amber in Oregon when it was introduced in 1989. Was Mendocino the first in the USA and was Full Sail Brewing really the first in Oregon? It probably remains safe to say that the style as we know it today came about sometime after 1980 and began its spread sometime in the late 1980’s.
When Mendocino Brewing introduced its Red Tail Ale, it was considered a beer which broke new ground, largely because it was made like a pale ale without tasting quite like any pale ale that beer drinkers had ever tried before. The initial amber ales which put the style on the map were bold, using distinctly American ingredients. At that time, there was no accepted amber ale style; you just had craft breweries slowly pushing the boundaries on the styles people already enjoyed. Brewpubs and craft breweries were still a novelty and pushing the envelope too far too fast meant a real risk of failure. People can’t order what they don’t know. So an amber ale appearing on an American craft brewer’s beer menu circa 1985 would probably have listed the beer as a dark ale or pale ale.
No one sought to invent amber ales. It just sort of happened like it does with any new food product. Other ales skirted the amber category before it became an accepted one and were classified as other types. McTarnnahan’s Scottish was billed as a Scottish ale for years. After it won a gold medal at the 1992 Great American Beer Festival and a bronze in the 1997 World Beer Cup, both as an amber beer, it slowly transformed in the public’s mouth from a Scottish ale to a Scottish-style amber ale to, today, an amber ale.
Remember that American craft brewers built upon older established styles from Europe. Initially the creations were altered with indigenous American ingredients. Gradually, the ingredient profiles were more radically changed to create distinctive new styles like amber ales.
Portland Brewing, established in Oregon in 1986, used to manufacturer a beer called Malarkey Wild Irish Ale. It wasn’t exactly an amber ale and wasn’t marketed as one either. Rather, it was considered an Irish red. And yet it had a lot in common with amber ales, utilizing similar types of malt and American hops. Beer connoisseurs considered it a unique Pacific Northwest type of beer and the color fell within the ‘proper’ ranges to be considered amber. Yet it wasn’t. And why? Because Portland Brewing never marketed it as an amber!
Where the old style ends and the new one begins isn’t clear until years after when the new style is readily identifiable. Amber ale is one of the more ambiguous beer categories because beers often get mistakenly classified under this type by color alone. In a beer competition, an amber-like color is important for a beer to be recognized in the amber category, but it is only one consideration. Alaskan Amber, manufactured by the Alaskan Brewing Company, has a light orange color. Rogue Ales’ American Amber Ale is so dark red as to resemble a port wine. Both have won medals as ambers.
Then you have beers like Devil’s Head Red and Capstone ESB from Colorado which, by color and flavor, could qualify them as ambers, but which are not sold as such. Plenty of British ales, a common category known as bitters, could be classified as ambers except for the inclusion of European hops instead of American, but the buying public has always known them as bitters. There’d be little gain to reclassify them as ambers.
The long and short of it is that amber ales as we know them to today are an extension of the American Pale Ale which is, in itself, a reinterpretation of the several centuries old English Pale Ale style, well regarded for its balance between malted grain and hop bitterness. English Pale Ales, in turn, were a scaled back version of the first heavily hopped IPA’s.
In Jurrassic Park, dinosaur DNA was preserved in amber and a dinosaur park created in Central America to disastrous results. Amber can also preserve the delicious: a new triumphant style of American beers that make the world of beer tasting taste a little bit better.